The research project Creativity and Knowledge Creation in Lean Organization addresses the challenge many companies are facing today: how to combine efficiency and effectiveness with an ability to be constantly innovative. Particularly the following two questions are in focus: (1) how do companies create the possibility for employees to be creative, to develop and share knowledge as lean is implemented in the firm and in the R&D organization in particular, and (2) what hinders knowledge transfer and creativity within and between organizations and within and between projects in an organization. The research project takes a multi-method approach in order to develop a comprehensive understanding.